As the largest collection within the True Echoes project, the 1898 Torres Strait cylinder collection features a large number of performers.

Using the information written on the cylinders and their paper inserts and the announcements on the recordings, we have attempted to identify as many performers as possible. We cross-referenced the performers’ names with published materials written by members of the expedition team, including recordists Charles Samuel and Alfred Cort Haddon. The expedition team often named and quoted the Torres Strait Islanders with whom they worked. Where possible, we have also included photographs of the performers, identified from the photographic collection of the University of Cambridge’s Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.

Note on names: For Net/Ned, Peter and Tom, their first names is their ‘European’ name, generally used when communicating with non-Islanders. The second name was their birth name. Net Waria was called Ned in English, whereas he himself, as well as other contemporary Islanders, used Net (pronounced Neth), given to him by a Samoan friend. The Island and neighbouring South-West Papuan custom was to exchange names with a person with whom one enters into a special friend-to-friend relationship with. Neth was the name Waria used to highlight this relationship, while Waria was used in certain formal situations.1Mitchell, R. 2011: Ngalmun Lagaw Yangukudu: the language of our homeland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum – Culture 8(1):323-446. Brisbane. ISSN 1440-4788.

Research by Rebekah Hayes, British Library, in partnership with Grace Koch, AIATSIS.

NameOriginImagesRecording DateRecording TripCylinder Number(s)Description
AimabSaibai(No images identified)23 October 1898 – 24 October 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1080Aimab (of the Daibau clan) is identified in Haddon's genealogical research on Saibai, which he carried out on 23 October 1898 (Haddon 1898-1899:251).12Haddon, A.C. 1898. Genealogies from Saibai Island. http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-1261413366 Aimab was married to Zauub (Kodal clan).
Akoko/AqokoLas, Mer / Murray Island 10 May 1898 – 24 August 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1030Akoko was an Er woman and wife of Barsa (Rivers 1908:84). Akoko also composed music for a song ‘from Tutu (indirectly from Saibai)’ but this was not recorded (Myers 1912a:241).
Ari (Harry)Mer / Murray Island 10 May 1898 – 16 October 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1029, C80/1048, C80/1106The Mamoose, or chief, of Mer was identified as Ari of Zaub (Haddon 1901:8; Ray 1907:50; Rivers 1908:68, Table 2). He is also referred to as Arei or Harry (Ray 1907:49). Haddon noted, “We were never quite sure, by the way, whether the old boy's name, which was pronounced Ari, was really a native name or merely their version of ‘Harry’” (Haddon 1901:72).
Ari belonged to the Tomog zogo, an “important divinatory shrine of Mer” (Haddon 1901:54). He was also one of the two head zogo men who prepared the yam zogo every year (Haddon 1901:86). He “affectionately greeted” Haddon and the expedition team when they arrived at Mer on 6 May 1898 (Haddon 1901:8, 1908:261). He was a Miriam language consultant for Ray along with Pasi, Mamoose of Dauar (Ray 1898-1899, Haddon 1901:28). Myers described him as having “artistic genius” and that Ari would encourage other Murray Islanders to partake in the expedition’s work (1898:74, 76)
The Mamoose was “reckoned to be the oldest man in the island” – perhaps around 68 years old – and his death is mentioned in a letter from Jack Bruce to Haddon in September 1913 (Myers 1898:60). Pasi was then appointed Mamoose of both Mer and Dauar.1122 September 1913. Letter from Jack Bruce to A.C. Haddon. https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-1260861235/view
Photographs of Ari at MAA include N.23284.ACH2, N.22920.ACH2, and N.22831.ACH2 [with wife and child].
BabeluMer / Murray Island(No images identified)10 May 1898 – 24 August 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1054Babelu (or Mamuru) of Mei was married to Taum (of Ulag) and had two children in 1898, Azer and Eded (Rivers 1908:78, 13A).
He performed the Tur siriam keber with Mamai on Queen Victoria’s birthday, 24 May 1898 (Myers & Haddon 1908:143):
There should have been four men instead of two. They walked abreast approaching the spectators in zigzag direction, the extent of the zigzag diminishing as they came nearer. Their step consisted in bringing one foot up to the other before the latter was again advanced. There was no singing. The performers repeatedly exclaimed, “Wo, wo, wo.”
Babelu also seemed to provide information to Haddon for his writing on magic (1908:220).
Billy GasuMer / Murray Island 10 May 1898 – 24 August 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1017Billy Gasu was originally from Dauar / Dowar Island and is mentioned as the maker of a tobacco charm, which Haddon obtained in 1889 (Haddon 1908:209). He was recorded on Mer / Murray Island and was about 35 to 40 years of age at the time of the expedition (Rivers 1901:9, Myers 1903:163). He is also mentioned in Rivers and Myers’ writings on vision and hearing, which were based on physiological testing conducted mainly on Mer / Murray Island (Rivers 1901:9, 39, 70; Myers 1901:142).
Billy Gasu is also featured in the photograph N.23184.ACH2, which shows top spinning on Mer.
BoaMer / Murray Island 10 May 1898 – 24 August 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1027. Linked to C80/1023.Boa was an Ulag man married to Wagi, an Eger woman (Rivers 1908:77, 12B). At the time of Haddon’s visit, Boa had five children; Ago, Margaret, Orepa, Kadel and Kame.Boa took part in the keber of the zera markai, which were witnessed by Myers on 24 May 1898 (Myers & Haddon 1908:133). Photograph N.23076.ACH2 depicts Boa’s house on Mer.
Charlie OntongBatavia (Jakarta) 23 May 1898 – 20 July 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1482, C662/471, C662/479Charlie Ontong is identified as a Javanese/Malay man from Batavia [Jakarta] who was employed as the expedition’s cook (Haddon 1901:71, 198). Myers described the initial employment of Ontong in his journal (1898:37). Ontong also accompanied Haddon, Seligmann, Ray and Wilkin on their trip to British New Guinea (Haddon 1901:73).
Photographs of Charlie Ontong at MAA also includes N.23205.ACH2 [pictured on left hand side].
Enoka (Enocha)Mer / Murray Island 10 May 1898 – 24 August 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitPossibly C80/446Enoka (or Enocha) was from Er and married to Mueni, an Areb woman (Rivers 1908:84, Table 18A). He is described as an old man who was a “[pillar] of the Church” and “knew about the past” (Haddon 1901:31). He also had a reputation as “a great master in the art of rain-making” and only made “good rain to make men's gardens grow” (Haddon 1901:32-35, 1908:200).
Enoka belonged to the Tomog zogo and to the zŭgareb, or drum clan, who used to beat the drum and sing songs at ceremonies (Haddon 1901:54, 62). Haddon (1901:62-63) described Enoka singing a Malu chant with words that correspond to Malu Song II, as titled and transcribed by Myers (1912a:266). Enoka also sang Malu Song IV (Myers 1912: 239). However, there is no record of this song in the C80 cylinder collection.
Enoka and Wano created models of the Malu masks in exchange for ten shillings to be “put in the plate at the annual missionary meeting” (Haddon 1901:46-47; 1908:244). He is mentioned throughout Volume VI of the Cambridge Reports as a consultant on Mer.
Photographs of Enoka at MAA also include N.22957.ACH2 [profile portrait] and N.23204.ACH2 [Ulai, Wanu, Gasu and Enocha singing as part of re-enactment of the Malu-Bomai ceremony at Las].
FinauMer / Murray Island 6 May 1898 – 8 September 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1488, probably C80/1055Finau was a Samoan London Missionary Society teacher on Mer. Haddon wrote that Finau “never appeared to realise the nature of our work or its effect upon the natives” and “preached loudly against native dancing” (1901:35). Finau preached against thinking about Malu and Bomai, “indirectly hinting at our enquiries from the old men” (Ray 1898:84) and referred to Mer dances as “debble-debble [devil] dancing” (Myers 1898-1899:60; Philp 1999).
Finau did allow the practice of South Sea dances, which were taught by a Rotuman person on Mer, possibly George Roki/Rotumah (Haddon 1901:35-36). Finau provided translations of the gospels to Ray in August 1898 (Ray 1898-1899:82).
GadodoMer / Murray Island (Unknown)Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres Strait(Unknown)Gadodo (also Gododo or Kadodo) was the cousin of Pasi, Mamoose of Dauar, and hosted Haddon and Myers on their visit to Las in May and July 1898 (Haddon 1898-1899:71, 193; Myers 1898:48). Songs were recorded by Myers at Gadodo’s house using the phonograph on 28 July 1898 (Haddon 1898-1899:193, Ray 1898-1899:81).
Gadodo performed in the keber of the zera markai, which were witnessed by Myers on 24 May 1898 (Myers & Haddon 1908:133). He was also included in the “cinematograph picture” of part of the Malu ceremony (Haddon 1901:47). Ray noted that Kaige, Kilarap and Gadodo dressed as zogo le and performed a Malu dance for the cinematograph on 6 September (1898-1899:86).
Gadodo and Pasi were consultants, sharing the legend of Iruam, while Gadodo also gave fire and rain charms to Haddon (Haddon 1901:59, 63).
Photographs of Gadodo at MAA include LS.109275.TC1 [profile portrait] and LS.109352.TC1 [with Mamai and Pasi].
GasuMer / Murray Island 10 May 1898 – 24 August 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1013, C80/1014, C80/1019, C80/1047-1048, C80/1095. Linked to C80/1016 and C80/1021. Possibly C80/447 and C80/1017.Gasu was an Ulag man who lived in Sebeg and was married to Goi, a Sebeg woman (Haddon 1908:70). At the time of the expedition, Gasu had four children, including Akari, Jinny, Beasie and Genigeni (Rivers 1908:77, Table 2B).
He was recognised as a “noted and credited” rain-maker and taught Jack Bruce the zogo mer [sacred words] of the rain charm (Haddon 1901:31-32; 1908:200). Gasu also gave a demonstration of rain-making (Haddon 1901:34). Myers wrote that Kaige – a policeman on Mer – had found a doiom [rain charm] “hidden in stones among the reefs + placed there by Gasu, a native who arrived from Mabuiag at the commencement of the rainy season”. Kaige returned the doiom to Gasu after its retrieval (Myers 1898:86).
Haddon wrote about obtaining Gasu’s doiom (1901:34-35):
“...Jimmy Dei…objected to the transaction, as they might not be able to obtain rain in the future when they required it. The very day after I had bought Gasu's doiom he wanted it back, and would gladly have returned the goods I gave him in exchange, for his was a very famous charm, and it even had the proud distinction of having a name of its own. Sometimes even a potent charm like this will fail in its function, and once this mischance befell this particular doiom, whereat Gasu was much enraged and threw it on the ground, and, alas the head broke off; then Gasu repented, and fastened the head on again with wire. I must confess I felt very sorry for Gasu when he regretted having yielded to my importunity and wanted his doiom back, but the collecting instinct was stronger than pure sentiment, and I had to inform him that it was then too late. Recently I have had a letter from Mr. Bruce, in which he says, "Gasu is always speaking of you and his doiom, and adds, ' Mind you, if he had not asked for it, I would not have given it to the Professor.' "Poor old Gasu! he was half blind when we were there, now he has completely lost his eyesight, and I am afraid he does not bear a pleasing memory of our visit, but still mourns the loss of his old and powerful charm.”
There are photographs of Gasu and his doiom and shrine at the MAA, including:
N.23204.ACH2 [Ulai, Wanu, Gasu and Enocha singing as part of re-enactment of the Malu-Bomai ceremony at Las]
• Rain charm and shrine: P.969.ACH1, P.970.ACH1, N.22910.ACH2, N.22911.ACH2, N.22912.ACH2, N.22913.ACH2
George RokiMer / Murray Island(No images identified)5 September 1898 ?Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1061, C680/722George Roki is most likely George Rotuma, a Rotuman man who lived on Murray Island (Haddon 1901:35-36). He was married to Wasan of Dauar (Rivers 1908:91, Table 28). Haddon mentioned “George Rotumah’s lugger” arriving at Mer (1901:57). George Rotuma supervised the practice of “South Sea” dances, which were witnessed by Ray and Haddon on 9 August 1898 (Haddon 1898-1899:196, Ray 1898-1899:83). As described in Ray’s journal, Ray recorded Rotuma songs by George Roki on 5 September 1898 (Ray 1898-1899:86). Two Rotuman sailors were also on board the Freya, which transported the Haddon, Rivers, Ray and Seligmann from Thursday Island on 30 April 1898 (Haddon 1901:4).
GemetuSaibai(No images identified)23 October 1898 – 24 October 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1077, C80/1079Gemetu (of the Daibau clan) is identified in Haddon's genealogical research on Saibai, which was conducted on 23 October 1898 (1898:251).10Haddon, A.C. 1898. Genealogies from Saibai Island. http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-1261413366 Gemetu was married to Kökeri [or Kokeri] and at the time had seven children including Jack Asaii [or Assaii], who appears on C80/1045. Gemetu was noted as the great-great-great-uncle of Australian singer and actor Christine Anu in series 2 of Australia’s Who Do You Think You Are? (Marriner 2009).
GizuMabuiag 3 October 1898 – 22 October 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1072 and 1081, possibly C80/1067.Gizu (of the Kaigas, Surlal, Uiuai clan) had been married four times to Wamad, Mudulpur, Talim and Iwai (Rivers 1904: Table 2). At the time of the expedition, he had five children. Gizu exchanged names with Kanai, Mamoose of Badu, as the Mei meeting was taking place on Mabuiag (Rivers 1904:282). He was a consultant to Haddon, who described Gizu as “an old man” who “was a great authority on various old customs, beliefs, and legends, and we found his knowledge invaluable when Waria, or our other informants, were at fault” (Haddon 1901:132). Gizu, along with Tom Noboa and Peter, also acted as a guide when Haddon, Ray, Seligmann and Wilkin visited Pulu Islet (Haddon 1898-1899:241; 1901:136). Ray notes that he recorded two songs (“Good records”) by Gizu on 7 October 1898 (Ray 1898-1899:89).
By April 1905, Gizu had died. Ned Waria requested lantern slides of Gizu and other Mabuiag people and “he could not do justice to any old legends now Gizu is dead.” 929 April 1905. Letter from John Cowling to A.C. Haddon. http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-1261583135 Photographs of Gizu are available at MAA, including N.22988.ACH2 [Tom, Peter, Waria, Gizu] and N.23037.ACH2 [Tom with W.H.R. Rivers, Gizu in background] Gizu also provided a number of drawings that were published in the Reports (Haddon 1901, 1904).
Jack Assaii (or Asaii)Saibai(No images identified)23 October 1898 – 24 October 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1045Asaii (of the Daibau clan) is identified in Haddon's genealogical research on Saibai, which was conducted on 23 October 1898 (Haddon 1898-1899:251).8Haddon, A.C. 1898. Genealogies from Saibai Island. http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-1261413366 He was the son of Gemetu (featured on C80/1077, 1079) and was he married to Kauk [Samu] with three children, Giwa, Ngangabuga, Umba.He was a language consultant for Ray’s work on the Saibai dialect of Kala Lagaw Ya [Y2: Kalaw Kawaw Ya] (1907:7, 8). Ray described working with Jack on language and recording cylinders on 23 and 24 October 1898 (Ray 1898-1899:90).
John 'Jack' S. BruceGlasgow, UK(No images identified)10 May 1898 – 24 August 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1038John 'Jack' S. Bruce, the only European resident on Mer / Murray Island and was the island’s schoolmaster and magistrate. He was also the main local consultant to Haddon (Kuklick 1998:162). Bruce was appointed in 1885 but was “more or less Protector of the island’s population from 1892-1923” (Beckett 1987:187, Philp 1999:59). Haddon writes about Bruce in the first volume of the Cambridge Reports (1935:100-101).
Jimmy Dei (Jimmy Day)Mer / Murray Island 6 May 1898 – 8 September 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1060Jimmy Dei (also Jimmy Day) was a police sergeant from Sebeg and married to Palau (Ulag), with three children, Babelu, Biskak and Sidoi (Rivers 1908:69, Table 4B). Haddon described him as “a very intelligent man and a devout churchgoer” and “a thorough gentleman” (1901:34, 72). He was estimated to be between 45 and 50 years old (Rivers 1901:10).
In August 1898, he helped to clear away the undergrowth that obstructed Tomog Zogo and was photographed with other men who also belonged to this zogo (Haddon 1898-1899:197-198). Shortly before leaving Mer, the expedition team invited Jimmy Dei (along with Mamooses Ari and Pasi) to dinner where they listened to songs and music on the phonograph (Haddon 1901:74).
Photographs of Jimmy Dei at MAA include N.78386.ACH2 [View of Tomog Zogo] and N.23234.ACH2 [Men of the Tomog zogo sitting behind the stones.]
Jimmy RiceMer / Murray Island 10 May 1898 – 24 August 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1037Jimmy Rice was a Kameri [Dauar] man, married to Su, a Werbadu woman (Rivers 1908:89). He also had the name Saviri or Sawairi, inherited from his father (ibid, 102). He was described as a “Murray Island native” and employed alongside Debe Wali to assist the expedition’s cook, Charlie Ontong (Haddon 1901:9, 71, 73).
Jimmy Rice is also included in photographs N.23177.ACH1 [Present of food, Mer. Bassar, Jimmy Day, Debe Wali, Jimmy Rice, Baton] and N.22900.ACH2 [Portrait of the expedition members with their assistants].
Joe BrownMer / Murray Island(No images identified)10 May 1898 – 24 August 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1026, C80/1031 – 1033, C80/1107Joe Brown (also known as Poloaii) was from the village of Er. He resided in Baur and was married to Siau, a Baur woman (Haddon 1908:67). Joe Brown was described as “the oldest of the crowd” in regards to the people who were consultants for the expedition team. 74 June 1919. Letter from Jack Bruce to A.C. Haddon. https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-1260862015/
Myers described Joe Brown leading singing and dancing, as well as singing with Ulai on 24 May 1898, Queen Victoria’s birthday (1898:50-52).
On 16 July 1898, Myers reported "a great morning of music” with Joe Brown, who was “reputed to be the best singer in the island.” Although he “proved a disappointment as a subject for the phonograph”, Joe Brown encouraged the singing of the other men who had visited with him and Myers was able to record seven cylinders of dance and semi-religious songs” (Myers 1898:86).
Keken Nubora (Kaikai?)(unidentified)(No images identified)3 October 1898 – 22 October 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1046The spoken announcement sounds more like Keke Nguru although this cannot be confirmed due to the quality of the recording. Moyle noted the name as Keken Bubora in her 1985 audition sheets.
This performer may be Kaikai, a policeman who was picked up at Yam alongside Maino before the remaining expedition members travelled onwards to Saibai (Haddon 1898-1899:249; 1901:170). Kaikai (also known as Pakir) was an Umai man married to Dagum, a Waru woman. They had two children, Goiza and Palit (Rivers 1904: Table 16A).
Kinauur / KinaurSaibai(No images identified)23 October 1898 – 24 October 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitPossibly C80/1078Kinauur (of the Tabu clan) is identified in Haddon's genealogical research on Saibai, which he carried out on 23 October 1898 (Haddon 1898-1899:251).6Haddon, A.C. 1898. Genealogies from Saibai Island. http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-1261415128 He was married to Babua [Samu] and had two children at the time, Waituka and Ka-usa.
Magina(unidentified)(No images identified)26 October 1898 ?Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1053The identity of this person is not clear. Yama is noted on the cylinder insert and there are two women named Mugena noted in the Tutu and Yam genealogies (Rivers 1904: Tables 16 & 16A). Of these two women, the speaker is more likely to be Mugena married to Paddy Wilson. She was also known as Magina (Eseli 1998:118).
The other Magena is the grandmother of Maino, Mamoose of Tudu and Yam. Magina may also be Magena, a woman from Mabuiag and married to Peter (Haddon 1904:227, Rivers 1904:143). Additionally, “Magina of Saguane, Kiwai island” is mentioned by Haddon (1912:17) and a woman named Magina lived on Mer (Rivers 1908:67, Table 1A).
Mahmoud AliPenang(No images identified)23 May 1898 – 20 July 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1482, C662/471, C662/479Ali, from Penang, was the ship’s cook on the Olive Branch, which took Haddon, Seligmann, Wilkin and Ray from Mer to British New Guinea in late May 1898 (Haddon 1901:198). It is not clear whether Ali was only present for the outward journey or whether he was present for the entire British New Guinea leg.
MainoTudu & Iama / Yam Island 3 October 1898 – 27 October 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1081, C80/1093Maino (of the Kodal, Womer clan) was Mamoose of Tudu and Yam, and travelled with the expedition to Saibai (Haddon 1901:170, Rivers 1904: Table 16). Maino married Pauna of Mawata, who features in the 1898 British New Guinea recordings [C62/1094] (David, et al 2015:292, Haddon 1935:77). Haddon had befriended Maino on his previous visit to the Torres Strait in 1888 (1901:171-172). They met on Tudu Island / Warrior Islet, and Maino “became [Haddon’s] devoted friend” (Quiggin 1942:84). Haddon went on to visit Maino again in 1914 (Haddon 1935:76).
On 25 October 1898, Haddon travelled to Tudu to “go over the old sacred sites with Maino” (1898-1899:254). Maino provided Haddon with information on the initiation of boys into manhood and showed where the ceremonies formerly took place (Haddon 1901:176). Following this visit, Maino travelled with Haddon, Ray and Seligmann to Nagir [Naghi / Mount Ernest] and Thursday Island (Haddon 1898-1899:254-259). Maino was also a Tudu language consultant to Ray (1907:7).
Maino gave his father Kebiso’s headdress and a boar's tusk ornament to Haddon:
‘Maino did not let me know at the time of his reluctance to part with these relics of his famous father. I did not ask him for them, seeing how highly he valued them, but he offered them freely to me. I then asked what he wanted in return, and gave him what he asked for— a small oval looking-glass, a pocket-knife, a blue bead necklace, and seven sticks of tobacco for the head-dress ; and for the tusk ornament a pocket-knife, two clay pipes, and four sticks of tobacco. He wanted me to have these mementoes of his father, partly because of our real friendship for each other, but also partly because he wanted them exhibited in a big museum in England, where plenty of people would see them and would know to whom they once belonged. They are now in the British Museum.’ (Haddon 1901:178).
For a fuller account of Haddon and Maino’s relationship, see David, Lui-Chivizhe & Philp (2015), in which the authors note that “Maino’s greatest influence on anthropology is through Haddon’s many writings on the Torres Strait between 1888 and 1940” (2015:302).
Matud/Matuot(unidentified)(No images identified)10 May 1898 – 24 August 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1023, possibly C80/1107Myers wrote that “Song XV was given to me as composed by Matud, a Murray Islander then deceased. But later it turned out to have been introduced by Matud from Erub whither it had been previously brought from Masig; Matud sang it first at a Miriam marriage-feast” (1912a:241). The metadata for the cylinder mentions Matuot, which may be a misspelling or incorrect transcription. The identity of this participant could also be linked to Matu mentioned on the cylinder insert for C80/1107. Both recordings are of kolap songs.
Mariget(unidentified)(No images identified)3 October 1898 – 22 October 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitPossibly C80/1081Two individuals with the name Mariget (also known as Sandy or Waime) are noted in tables 2A and 3A of the Mabuiag genealogies (Rivers 1904). Rivers noted that men would exchange names with each other (and sometimes their wives and children too).
The Mariget mentioned in Vol V of the Reports is identified as the individual in table 2A, who is part of the Kaigas, Surlal, Uiuai clan (Rivers 1904:368). Mariget provided a drawing of the Tagai constellation in Vol IV of the Reports (Haddon 1912: xiv; Rivers 1912:221). However, mariget can also mean “ghost hand”, referring to a “decreed individual” who “takes on the role of primary organiser and planner” following a death in the community (Fitzpatrick 2000:37).
MikulMabuiag(No images identified)3 October 1898 – 22 October 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1075Eseli (1998:122) notes that Mikul was also referred to as Dadiku. Dadiku (of the Surlal, Womer, Sapor clan) was married to Rab (also known as Sakaukazi) and had two children at the time of expedition, Supir and Ngailu (Rivers 1904:132).
Ned WariaMabuiag 3 October 1898 – 22 October 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1041, possibly C80/1040, 1043.Waria (of the Dangal, Kodal clan) was the hereditary chief of Mabuiag and was married to Uruba, with six children at the time of the expedition (Rivers 1904: Table 1). He was also known as Ned (Rivers 1904:143, Ray 1907:7).
Waria was “promoted to be [Haddon’s] special instructor in the old native customs, and help Ray with his study of the language” (Haddon 1901:123). Ray’s work on Mabuiag was based on material Waria, as well as Tom Noboa and Peter (1907:7). Ray mentions his work with Waria in journal entries dated 17, 19 and 20 October (1898-1899:89-90).
Waria worked on a translation of the Gospel of St. Matthew and was “a very accomplished person […] He was genuinely interested in our work” (Haddon 1901:123). Haddon further noted, “Our indebtedness to our native helpers is obvious; but to Waria, the chief of Mabuiag, we owe much, as, in addition to what he has told us orally, he has sent a large quantity of manuscript, mainly of genealogies and folk-tales, which he has written at his own initiative” (1904:6).
Waria also constructed a bamboo platform or nēĕt to show the discontinued practice of dugong hunting (Haddon 1901:152-153). Waria’s infant son died while the expedition visited Mabuiag, and Waria requested that the group photographed his son so “that he might not forget what he was like”. The group honoured this request (1901:123). By January 1900, Waria was Mamoose of Mabuiag.4January 1900. Letter from John Cowling to A.C. Haddon. http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-1261581202 Haddon sent a telescope to Waria as a gift.526 June 1901. Letter from John Cowling to A.C. Haddon. http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-1261582701
Photographs of Waria at MAA include:
N.22959.ACH2 [front-facing portrait]
N.22988.ACH2 [Tom, Peter, Waria, Gizu]
N.23006.ACH2 [landing turtle, Mabuiag. Waria and Tom]
N.23038.ACH2 [holding colour wheel]
N.23039.ACH2 [holding board for visual acuity test]
N.22801.ACH2 and N.22802.ACH2 [dugong-spearing platform]
NomoaMabuiag 16 October 1898 ?Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1036, C80/1059Nomoa (of the Dangal, Kodal clan) was the mamoose or chief of Mabuiag at the time of the 1898 expedition (Rivers 1904: Table 1). Waria was the hereditary successor of the previous mamoose, Ganair, but Nomoa was made mamoose as Waria was deemed too young at the time of Ganair’s death (Rivers 1904:267). Nomoa was eventually succeeded by Waria shortly after the expedition’s visit. A speech by Nomoa was recorded by Ray on 16 October 1898 (Ray 1898-1899:89). Ray described this as a “lament” and that the Mamoose also prayed.
PasiMer / Murray Island 8 August 1898 – 7 September 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres Strait(Unknown)Ray recorded songs, speeches and prayers by Pasi on 8 August, 10 August and 7 September (1898-1899:83, 86). He was also a language consultant for Ray on Mer. For example, Ray discussed the Malu songs with Pasi and Mamoose Ari on 15 August (Ray 1898-1899:84). However, Pasi’s name is not included on existing cylinder insert notes or cylinder inscriptions. It has not yet been possible to credit Pasi as a contributor on the cylinder recordings.
Peter (Pita) PapiMabuiag 3 October 1898 – 22 October 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1069, 1070, 1074, and C62/1469; possibly C80/1040, C80/1043.Peter (also known as Papi) was married to Magena and they had four children, Adiadi, Bagari, Wiwai and Iamaima at the time of the expedition (Rivers 1904: Table 6; Ray 1907:7).
Ray’s work on Mabuiag was based on material from Peter, along with Tom Noboa and Waria (1907:7). According to Ray's journal, he worked with Peter from 15 to 17 October 1898, and Ray made a number of records, including songs (1898-1899:89-90). Haddon noted that Peter and Tom were paid ten shillings a week each to talk with the expedition team “whenever we wanted them” (1901:123). Peter, Tom and Gizu acted as guides when Haddon, Ray, Seligmann and Wilkin visited Pulu Islet (Haddon 1898-1899:241; 1901:136). Haddon also received examples of love letters from Peter (1901:163).
Photographs of Peter at MAA include N.22988.ACH2 [Tom, Peter, Waria, Gizu].
Tom (Nauwi) NoboaMabuiag 3 October 1898 – 22 October 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitPossibly C80/1040, C80/1043Tom (also known as Nauwi) was married to Paparu with five children, Jaubi, Nianga, Adi, Utui and May at the time of the expedition (Rivers 1904: Table 9A). Ray’s work on Mabuiag was based on material from Tom, along with Peter and Waria (1907:7). Haddon noted that Peter and Tom were paid ten shillings a week each to talk with the expedition team “whenever we wanted them” (1901:123). Ray mentions Tom in journal entries from 3 and 15 October (1898-1899:88-89). Peter, Tom and Gizu acted as guides when Haddon, Ray, Seligmann and Wilkin visited Pulu Islet (Haddon 1898-1899:241; 1901:136).
Photographs of Tom at MAA include:
N.22988.ACH2 [Tom, Peter, Waria, Gizu]
N.23037.ACH2 [Tom with W.H.R. Rivers, Gizu in background]
N.23006.ACH2 [landing turtle, Mabuiag. Waria and Tom]
N.23036.ACH2 [W.H.R Rivers with Tom]
UlaiMer / Murray Island 10 May 1898 – 24 August 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1011-1013, C80/1016, C80/1018-1020, C80/1024, C80/1026, C80/1031-1032, C80/1048, C80/1095 (duplicate), C80/1097-1098 (duplicates), C80/1101 (duplicate), C80/1494. Possibly C80/1023 and C80/1047. Linked to C80/1014.Ulai lived in Sebeg and was married twice to Weit, a Warwe woman, and Kabur, a Bòged woman. He had two children at the time of the expedition (Rivers 1908:70, Table 4C). Ulai belonged to the Tomog zogo (Haddon 1901:54). Haddon noted that Ulai was “the greatest character of the lot” and “gloated over the past, especially the shady parts of it, and it was this lack of reverence that made him so valuable to us” (1901:72-73). Ulai was “of considerable use to [the expedition members], and who at the same time gave us much amusement; he immediately reeled off a lot more words” (Haddon 1901:31-32). Ulai shared a model of a doiom, “a stone effigy of a man that is used in the rain-making ceremony” with Haddon (1901:33). Myers also noted that Ulai discussed and collected rain charms (1898:74).
Photographs of Ulai at MAA include:
N.23098.ACH2 and N.23099.ACH2 [portraits]
N.23204.ACH2 [Ulai, Wanu, Gasu and Enocha singing as part of re-enactment of the Malu-Bomai ceremony at Las]
N.23234.ACH2 [Tomog zogo with Jimmy Dei, Kaige, Enocha and Mamoose Ari]
N.23209.ACH2 [Gasu plays the drum, Wasikor. Ulai in front of phonograph. Myers kneeling behind the phonograph looking at Ulai]
Wanu/WanoMer / Murray Island 10 May 1898 – 24 August 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1012, C80/1022, C80/1025, C80/1038, C80/1101 (duplicate), C666/797Wanu (also spelled as Wano or Uano326 December 1902. Letter from Jack Bruce to A.C. Haddon. https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-1260837004/ ) was an Areb man married to Degoai, an Erub woman (Rivers 1908:80; Myers 1912a:240). Wanu was described as an old man on Mer who was a “[pillar] of the Church”, “knew about the past” and was knowledgeable about rain-making (Haddon 1901:31, 33).
Wanu (along with Mamai) was a custodian of the Dogai masks and prepared them for ceremonies (Haddon 1908:209). Enocha and Wanu agreed to make models of the Malu masks for payment of ten shillings to be “put in the plate at the annual missionary meeting” (Haddon 1901:46-47). Wanu also knew about the “ancient fighting custom associated with Ziriam Zogo, at a place called Meket” as he lived nearby, and he was able to draw a diagram and make a wooden model of the mask, which women were not allowed to view (Haddon 1901:59-60).
The photograph N.23204.ACH2 also includes Wanu [Ulai, Wanu, Gasu and Enocha singing as part of re-enactment of the Malu-Bomai ceremony at Las].
WapSaibai(No images identified)23 October 1898 – 24 October 1898Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition, Torres StraitC80/1076Wap (of the Umai clan) is identified in Haddon's genealogical research on Saibai, which was conducted on 23 October 1898 (Haddon 1898:251).2Haddon, A.C. 1898. Genealogies from Saibai Island. http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-1261413366 Wap was married to Gaiga (Daibau) and had three children at the time of the expedition, Kadau, Kakau, and Kubilbigai. Sergeant Wap is mentioned as someone in charge of land on Saibai (Wilkin 1904:290).
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