Collection overview

The British Library’s Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition (Torres Strait and British New Guinea) Cylinder Collection (C80) includes 141 wax cylinders recorded in the Torres Strait Islands and British New Guinea as part of the 1898 Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits. These cylinders are among the earliest sound recordings in the Library’s Sound Archive and the earliest extant collection from Oceania.

The collection is made up of two parts: 99 cylinders that were recorded on the Torres Strait Islands in what is today Australia and 3 recorded in England, known as the C80 Torres Strait collection, and 39 that were recorded in what is today Papua New Guinea, known as the C80 British New Guinea collection. Due to the scale of this collection, information about the recordings from each collection is divided across two separate collection pages, which can be accessed below.

Research by Vicky Barnecutt and Rebekah Hayes, British Library, with Don Niles, IPNGS, and Grace Koch, AIATSIS.

The Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait, 1898

All of the recordings in the Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition (Torres Strait and British New Guinea) Cylinder Collection were made as part of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits in 1898.

This expedition was organised and led by Professor Alfred Cort Haddon (1855–1940). Haddon, a distinguished natural scientist and ethnologist, was instrumental in establishing anthropology as a discipline at Cambridge. The expedition members included William Halse Rivers Rivers (1864–1922), a physician specialising in experimental psychology and physiology; Charles Seligmann1Seligmann changed the spelling of his surname to “Seligman” in 1914 (Myers 1941:627). “Seligmann” is used when discussing the C80 collection as it refers to the period of time before the change of spelling. (1873–1940), a pathologist specialising in tropical diseases; Charles Samuel Myers (1873–1946), a physician who specialised in psychology and music; William McDougall (1871–1938), also a physician; Sidney Herbert Ray (1858–1939), a linguist; and Anthony Wilkin (1877?–1901), who acted as the expedition’s photographer.2Anthony Wilkin’s year of birth is not known. Haddon said that Wilkin was “barely twenty-four years of age” when he died in May 1901 (Haddon 1901:viii)

The expedition members met on Thursday Island on 22 April 1898, and arrived on Mer / Murray Island3Where possible, Torres Strait Islands place names are taken from AIATSIS’ Pathways thesaurus: https://thesaurus.aiatsis.gov.au on 6 May. Haddon, Ray, Wilkin, and Seligmann left for Port Moresby and the Central District of British New Guinea on 23 May, with Haddon, Ray, and Wilkin returning to Mer on 20 July.

Myers and McDougall spent most or all of their time on Mer, leaving for Sarawak on 24 August 1898. On 8 September, Haddon, Rivers, Ray and Wilkin left Mer for the island of Kiwai in British New Guinea’s Western District. They met up with Seligmann on 12 September.

Haddon, Rivers, Wilkin, and Seligmann travelled from Kiwai to Mabuiag on 17 September. Ray joined them on 3 October. Rivers and Wilkin left Mabuiag to begin their journeys home on 19 and 21 October respectively. Haddon, Ray, and Seligmann visited Saibai and Iama / Yam Island between 22 October and 27 October, but spent only a few days on each of these islands (Haddon 1901:xiii, Philp 1999:59).

In October 1898, the expedition members separated with Rivers returning to England due to his teaching commitments. Wilkin travelled on to Egypt while the rest of the expedition members went to Sarawak (Slobodin 1978:24-25).

Motivations for the expedition

Haddon initially trained as a marine zoologist. However, his first visit to the Torres Strait Islands to study “coral reefs and their fauna” in 1888 was “the turning point in his life”, reshaping both his career and the field of anthropology (Quiggin 1942:81).

On his 1888 visit to the Torres Strait, Haddon spent time on the islands of Tudu Island / Warrior Islet (just off Iama / Yam Island), Mabuiag, and Mer (Quiggin 1942:88). He also visited the south coast of British New Guinea on this trip.4https://www.nma.gov.au/learn/encounters-education/community-stories/tudu He met with many Torres Strait Islanders, in part to obtain objects that could be given to museums to recover some of the journey’s expenses (Quiggin 1942:82). Haddon published anthropological as well as scientific work (see Haddon 1890a, 1890b, 1893) and an ethnographic monograph was planned. As Haddon felt “he had only skimmed the surface”, he wished to return to the Torres Strait to focus on anthropology (Quiggin 1942:88, 91). Haddon noted that the aim of the 1898 expedition was to “verify and supplement the anthropological observations that I made in Torres Straits in 1888-89” (1899:413).

The Torres Strait Islands were of particular interest to researchers of the time due to their location between the “distinctive cultural, geographical and biological zones” of Australia and New Guinea, enabling researchers to develop “European theories in both natural history and ethnology” (Herle & Rouse 1998:12). Haddon also noted that anthropologists could only comprehend the behaviour of peoples through direct observation and the 1898 expedition was an opportunity to demonstrate this fieldwork method alongside laboratory practice (Kuklick 1998).

Salvage anthropology was also a motivation for Haddon’s 1898 visit. In a letter to Haddon in 1889, the Rev. W. W. Gill in Sydney noted “You do well to pick up the crumbs that remain” of ethnological data (Quiggin 1942:90). In 1890, Haddon noted that “the natives of the islands had of late years been greatly reduced in numbers, and that, with the exception of but one or two individuals, none of the white residents knew anything about the customs of the natives, and not a single person cared about them personally … if I neglected to avail myself of the present opportunity of collecting information on the ethnography of the islanders, it was extremely probable that that knowledge would never be gleaned” (Haddon 1890b:297–298).

In particular, Haddon learned about the Malu-Bomai rites on Mer / Murray Island and was determined to record the details in 1898. He was persistent, despite some Islanders’ reluctance to divulge information about sacred beliefs and practices (Herle 1998:87). Haddon wanted to conduct research “before it was too late” and noted the impact, including depopulation, due to the “influences of the white man” (1899:413).

The western (including Mabuiag) and southern Torres Strait Islands groups “were very early exposed to European influence” and Mabuiag was the location for “one of the earliest headquarters and stores of a pearlsheller” with a mission opened in 1871 (Laade 1977:1). Even in 1898, Haddon already observed a “rapid change in the social life of the people. We were but just in time to record the memory of the vanished past” (1904:vi).

Mer / Murray Island was chosen as a focal point for research due to its relative geographical location; it was “little touched by colonialism (although many of its residents were Christianised and spoke pidgin English” (Kuklick 1998:161). This meant the residents of Mer would be more likely to have retained their “traditional lifestyle” (Kuklick 1998:170).

The recordists

The British Library’s Sound and Moving Image catalogue originally included Haddon and Myers as the sound recordists for almost all of the C80 Torres Strait recordings, and Charles Seligmann for the British New Guinea recordings, that were previously in the C62 Seligman New Guinea collection. Sidney Ray is listed as a recordist for four recordings made on Saibai Island (C80/1077-1080) and the two recordings made in England before the expedition (C80/1485, C80/1489).

When Haddon was looking to put together a team for the 1898 expedition, the missionary and anthropologist the Reverend Dr. Robert Henry Codrington (Quiggin 1942:98) recommended Ray as a linguist.  Ray had researched a number of languages in both the Torres Strait Islands and British New Guinea.

Archival and other evidence indicates that Ray made all of the recordings in British New Guinea, and both Myers and Ray made the recordings in the Torres Strait Islands.

Throughout Haddon’s journal and in his book Head-Hunters, there are also numerous references to Ray’s use of the phonograph for both playing pre-recorded music and recording speeches, songs, and dances during their two visits to British New Guinea, and Ray’s journal confirms that he did most, if not all, of the recording there. There is no evidence to suggest that anyone else made any of the recordings. Ray noted that he was able to study the Koitapu language in Port Moresby, and Kiwai in Saguane, and that he also gained some knowledge of dialects spoken in the Mekeo and Roro districts (1907:285).

It seems likely that when Haddon, Ray, Wilkin, and Seligmann visited British New Guinea in May 1898, they only took one of the two phonographs definitely purchased and shipped by the expedition, leaving the other one on Mer with Myers.

There is one published reference to Seligmann using the phonograph in 1898, a photograph in Herle and Rouse (1998:228) that depicts one of the anthropologists using the phonograph in Hula, presumably on 14 June.5See also N.34987.ACH2 (Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology), also pictured below. However, it is not clear why this was labelled as a photograph of Seligmann; indeed, it is likely that it in fact depicts Ray. It may have been labelled “Seligmann” because the 1898 recordings from British New Guinea were until 2020 in a collection titled Seligman New Guinea (C62). Comparison of that photo with other portraits of the expedition members, particularly looking at the hat, facial hair and height, suggests it is Ray.

The photograph above clearly shows that the machine in use is the Edison Home Phonograph. It is possible that the photograph is posed or shows a practice run, as it appears that there is no wax cylinder mounted on the phonograph. There is only one photograph of phonographic recording in the Torres Strait, where the machine is being operated by Charles Myers, and it is not clear what machine was being used.6See P.45013.ACH2 (Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology)

For recording work in the Torres Strait, Myers noted that his anthropological work was confined to Mer / Murray Island, and that he was indebted to Ray “for phonographic records of the music of Mabuiag, Yam and Saibai” (1912a:261). On 24 July 1898, Ray noted that he heard Myers recording “Murray songs” (1898-1899:80). In a 28 July 1898 diary entry, Myers noted that “with great difficulty”, he recorded a few Malu songs using the phonograph (Myers 1898:104). These comments also suggest that Ray and Myers each had a phonograph.

Myers published a number of musical notations of the recordings in Volume IV of the Reports of the Cambridge Expedition to Torres Straits (1912a), and the Malu texts were published by Myers and Haddon in Volume VI (1908). Aside from the Reports, Myers also wrote about the music of the Torres Strait Islands in other publications (see Myers 1899, 1912b, 1914).

Ray noted that his “attention during [his] stay in the islands was mainly concentrated upon the grammars of the two languages” of the Eastern and Western Torres Strait Islands (1899:218). In this same article, Ray stated that he researched the languages of Mer and Erub, and of Mabuiag, Tudu, Saibai and Muralag. Ray’s work on languages is the focus of Volume III of the Reports (1907).

The interest of Myers and Ray in linguistics and music, as well as their writings, suggests that they were the recordists of the Torres Strait cylinders.

In the British Library’s box files related to this expedition, there are two handwritten documents, which reference recordings made in the Torres Strait Islands and British New Guinea. We presume these notes were written by Myers due to the handwriting and because they reference Ray and Seligmann’s work as well, including Ray’s work in Volume III of the Reports (1907). Therefore, it is likely these notes were written between 1907 and 1912.

Using the phonograph

Haddon may have been persuaded to take the phonograph on the expedition by Jesse Walter Fewkes, who used the equipment in 1890 during his research on the Passamaquoddy people in North America. Fewkes is widely recognized as the first person to make phonographic recordings as part of anthropological research. He wrote to Haddon in March 1890 and described the usefulness of using the phonograph to record stories and songs (Clayton 1996:69).

Use of the phonograph by the expedition “may well have been the first British use of the technique” (Ward 1984:1). The journals and papers of at least Haddon, Rivers, Seligmann, Myers and Wilkin include references to recording (Clayton 1996). In a 28 July 1898 diary entry, Myers noted that “cameras and phonograph apparatus constitute the bulk of our baggage” (Myers 1898:92).

Early notes by Haddon suggest he had originally considered or was recommended to the Edison Standard phonograph. He was advised to use more than one phonograph, label all cylinders, note the speed of recording, and pack the cylinders in cotton wool and wax paper.7No date. Loose leaf from notebook titled ‘Graphopone’ [sic]. Haddon, A.C. No date. Loose leaf from notebook titled “Graphopone [sic].” https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-1263487949/view.

Two phonographs were apparently purchased, but documents do not agree as to their make. According to the expedition invoices, Haddon acquired one Edison Home phonograph and one Bijou Graphophone. On 16 November 1897, the expedition’s outfitter, John Haddon & Co., noted that they had forwarded “an Edison Home Phonograph” to Haddon on 15 November 1897, and that the Edisonia Co. was preparing a second for him.816 November 1897. Shipping note from John Haddon & Co. https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-1263526409/view In a note from December 1897 estimating expenditures, Haddon wrote “2 phonographs £50”, and there is also a note that 200 cylinders would cost £15.98 December 1908. Haddon Rough Estimate of Expenditure for Torres Straits Expedition [PDF, copy held at British Library World and Traditional Music section] According to the receipts, each device was around £15. An invoice from John Haddon & Co. from 21 January 1898 records the despatch of a “Bijou Grapho. + outfit” along with one dozen diaphragm glasses.1021 January 1898. Shipping note from John Haddon & Co. https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-1263525027/view

It is not clear why one of each phonograph was chosen, or what happened to the second Edison Home phonograph that the outfitters mentioned. The Bijou Graphophone was a new and improved phonograph developed by Alexander Graham Bell’s Volta Laboratory.11Further information on the development of the Graphophone can be found here in Wile, R.R. 1990. The Development of Sound Recording at the Volta Laboratory, Association for Recorded Sound Collections Journal, 21, 2 [Accessed 30 July 2020] The equipment was acquired through John Haddon & Co., who provided a 5% discount.1220 January 1898. Letter from John Haddon & Co. to A.C. Haddon. https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-1263493475/view Further correspondence with John Haddon & Co from 20 January 1898 indicates that Haddon had asked for the price for 250 blank cylinders, which the Edisonia Company specified would be packed in wadding, each one in a tin case ready for use.13Letter from Haddon & Co, Exporters, to Dr Haddon, 20 Jan 1898 Subseries 1049. Subseries 1049. Bills, plans, correspondence for Second Expedition, 1897 – 1899. Haddon Papers, Cambridge University Library

Ray wrote to Haddon on 30 January 1898 to say that “I will have tin boxes for the phono cylinders. I am trying to get a few good records, which will do for the natives and for ship”. Ray also mentioned “my machine does not shave”,14Ray, Sidney. 30 Jan 1898. Letter to A C Haddon. Subseries 1049. Bills, plans, correspondence for Second Expedition, 1897 – 1899. Haddon Papers, Cambridge University Library but there is no further information on whether he was referring to a phonograph of his own, or the Edison Home machine sent to Haddon in November. If Ray did have his own phonograph, we do not know whether he took it with him.15Further information on the phonograph equipment and its cost can be found in box 13, file 3 of the Haddon Papers, Cambridge University Library (Griffiths 2002:366).

We do not know what happened to the phonographs after the expedition. Myers and McDougall left the Torres Strait for Borneo on 24 August, and Haddon, Ray and Seligmann left for Borneo in November (Herle and Rouse 1998:2). They must have taken at least one phonograph with them as there are a number of recordings from that part of the trip in the British Library’s Borneo cylinder collection (C666). This collection has not been studied in detail yet. In a letter to his wife in September 1898, Haddon noted that he was writing to Walter W. Skeat in Singapore and “will let him have a phonograph with pleasure” and that “both phonographs require overhauling but we have obtained good results here”.16Haddon, A.C. 25 September 1898. Letter to Fanny Haddon. http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-1260503757 In the same letter, Haddon noted that Skeat should order “50 (or as many as he wants) cylinders in tins”. His underlining of “in tins” indicates that his experience from the Torres Strait and British New Guinea had proved that individual tins were the preferred packing method.

  • AIATSIS. 1973? – 1975. 1964_64-2 KEARNEY, PROFESSOR GEORGE [manuscripts] AIATSIS Central File. Canberra: AIATSIS.
  • AIATSIS. 1975 – 1984. 1964_64-3 KEARNEY, PROFESSOR GEORGE [manuscripts] AIATSIS Central File. Canberra: AIATSIS.
  • AIATSIS. 1977 – 1981. 1966_15-1 MOORE, D. – Grants – INDIVIDUAL [manuscripts] AIATSIS Central File. Canberra: AIATSIS.
  • Beckett, Jeremy. 1987. Torres Strait Islanders: Custom and colonisation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Blayney, J. A. 1898. ”Appendix M, Report of the Resident Magistrate for the Central Division, 22 July 1898.” Annual Reports of British New Guinea from 1st July 1897 to 30th June 1898, 86–96.
  • British Library Board. 2010. Memory of The World Register: The Historic Ethnographic Recordings (1898–1951) at the British Library (United Kingdom). UNESCO. Available at <http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/CI/pdf/mow/nomination_forms/Uk%20ethnographic.pdf> [Accessed 28 April 2020].
  • Clayton, Martin. 1996. “Ethnographic Wax Cylinders at the British Library National Sound Archive: A Brief History and Description of the Collection.” British Journal of Ethnomusicology 5: 67–92.
  • David, Frank, Leah Lui-Chivizhe, and Jude Philp. 2015. “Individuals in Kulkalgal History.” Journal of Australian Studies 39/3: 290–306.
  • Day, Timothy. 2001. “The National Sound Archive: the first fifty years”. In Aural History: Essays on Recorded Sound, edited by A. Linehan, 41-64. London: The British Library.
  • Dunlop, Ian. 1979. “Ethnographic Film-Making in Australia: The First Seventy Years (1898–1968).” Aboriginal History 3/1–2: 111–119. Available at <https://www.jstor.org/stable/24045736> [Accessed 27 May 2020].
  • Durán, Lucy. 1985. “The Cylinder Project: tape transference of Australian Aboriginal recordings on cylinders in the National Sound Archive, Part I”. In Australian and New Zealand Studies: Papers Presented at a Colloquium at the British Library, 7-9 February 1984, edited by P. McLaren-Turner. London: The British Library.
  • Edwards, Elizabeth. 1998. “Performing Science: Still Photography and the Torres Strait Expedition.” In Cambridge and the Torres Strait: Centenary Essays on the 1898 Anthropological Expedition, edited by Anita Herle and Sandra Rouse, 106-135. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Eseli, Peter. 1998. Eseli’s Notebook. Translated from Kala Lagaw Ya, edited and annotated by A. Shnukal, R. Mitchell, and Y. Nagata. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies Unit Research Report Series, Volume 3. Brisbane: The University of Queensland. Available at <https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:382557> [Accessed 31 March 2020].
  • Fitzpatrick, Judith M. 2000. “Tombstone ceremonies: Identity and political integration”. In The Oxford Companion to Aboriginal Art and Culture, edited by S. Kleinart and M. Neale, 37. Melbourne, N.S.W. and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Gash, Noel, and June Whittaker. 1975. A Pictorial History of New Guinea. Melbourne: The Jacaranda Press.
  • Griffiths, Alison. 2002. Wondrous Difference: Cinema, Anthropology, and Turn-of-the-Century Visual Culture. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort. c.1880-1940. Haddon Papers.  MS.HADDON. Cambridge: Cambridge University Library.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort. 1890a. Manners and customs of the Torres Straits Islanders. London: William Clowes.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort. 1890b. “The Ethnography of the Western tribe of Torres Strait.” The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 19: 297–440.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort. 1893. “The Secular and Ceremonial Dances of Torres Straits.” Internationales Archiv für Ethnographie, 6. Leiden: P.W.M. Trap. Available at: <https://archive.org/details/internationalesa06inte/page/135/mode/1up>
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort. 1898-1899. Journal of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to the Torres Strait and New Guinea. MS.HADDON. Cambridge: Cambridge University Library.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort. 1899. “The Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits and Sarawak.” Nature 1557/60: 413–416.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort. 1900. Studies in the Anthropogeography of British New Guinea. The Geographical Journal 16/3, 265–291, 414–440.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort. 1901a. Head-Hunters. Black, White and Brown. London: Metheun & Co.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort (ed.) 1901b. Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume II, Physiology and Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort (ed.) 1904. Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume V, Sociology, Magic and Religion of the Western Islanders. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort (ed.) 1908. Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume VI, Sociology, Magic and Religion of the Eastern Islanders. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort (ed.) 1912. Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume IV, Arts and Crafts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort (ed.) 1935. Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume I, General Ethnography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort. 1946. “Smoking and Tobacco Pipes in New Guinea.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, ser. B, 232/586 (6 Jun): 1–278.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort and Myers, Charles Samuel. 1908. “The Cult of Bomai and Malu”. In Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume VI, Sociology, Magic and Religion of the Eastern Islanders, edited by Alfred Cort Haddon, 281–313. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Herle, Anita. 1998. “The Life-histories of Objects: Collections of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to the Torres Strait.” In Cambridge and the Torres Strait: Centenary Essays on the 1898 Anthropological Expedition, edited by Anita Herle and Sandra Rouse, 77–105. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Herle, Anita and Rouse, Sandra (eds.) 1998. Cambridge and the Torres Strait: Centenary essays on the 1898 anthropological expedition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Herle, Anita and Philp, Jude (eds.) 2020. Recording Kastom: Alfred Haddon’s Journals from the Torres Strait and New Guinea, 1888 and 1898. Sydney: Sydney University Press.
  • Holmes, John Henry. 1898. Diary of John H. Holmes 1 April 1898 to 31 December 1898. [manuscript]. Records of the London Missionary Society, School of Oriental and African Studies (AJCP ref: https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-1642900159).
  • Hornbostel, Erich Moritz von. 1913. “Melodie und Skala”. In Jahrbuch der Musikbibliothek Peters, 19. Jahrgang, 11–23. Leipzig: C.F. Peters. Available at <https://archive.org/details/melodieundskala00horn/> [Accessed 14 January 2021].
  • Koch, Grace. 2013. We have the song, so we have the land: song and ceremony as proof of ownership in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander land claims. AIATSIS research discussion paper no. 33. Canberra: AIATSIS Research Publications. Available at <https://aiatsis.gov.au/sites/default/files/research_pub/we-have-the-song-so-we-have-the-land_0_2.pdf> [Accessed 9 March 2021].
  • Koch, Grace. 2019. “’We Want Our Voices Back’: Ethical Dilemmas in the Repatriation of Recordings”. In The Oxford Handbook of Musical Repatriation, edited by F. Gunderson, R.C. Lancefield & B. Woods, ch.11. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190659806.013.11
  • Kolia, John. 1975. “A Balawaia Grammar Sketch and Vocabulary.” In Studies in Languages of Central and South-East Papua, edited by Tom E. Dutton, 107–226. Pacific Linguistics, C 19. Canberra: Australian National University.
  • Kolia, John. 1981. “The Lala and Balawaia in Central Province.” In Oral Tradition in Melanesia, edited by Donald Denoon and Roderic Lacey, 231–239. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea & Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies.
  • Kuklick, Henrika. 1998. “Fieldworkers and physiologists.” In Cambridge and the Torres Strait: Centenary Essays on the 1898 Anthropological Expedition, edited by Anita Herle and Sandra Rouse, 158–180. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Laade, Wolfgang. 1973. “Notes on the clans, economy, trade and traditional law of the Murray Islanders, Torres Straits.” Journal de la Société des océanistes 9/29, 151–167. doi: https://doi.org/10.3406/jso.1973.2423. Available from <https://www.persee.fr/doc/jso_0300-953x_1973_num_29_39_2423> [Accessed 9 December 2020].
  • Laade, Wolfgang. 1977. Traditional Songs of the Western Torres Straits, South Pacific. Folkways Records Album No. FE 4025 [sleeve notes] New York: Folkways Records.
  • Landtman, Gunnar. 1927. The Kiwai Papuans of British New Guinea. London: MacMillan and Co.
  • Langmore, Diane. c1989. Missionary Lives: Papua, 1874-1914. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
  • Lawrence, Helen Reeves. 2004. “‘The great traffic in tunes’: agents of religious and musical changes in eastern Torres Strait.” In Woven Histories, Dancing Lives: Torres Strait Islander Identity, Culture and History, edited by R. Davis, 46–72. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press.
  • Lawrence, David, and Pirjo Varjola. 2010. Gunnar Landtman in Papua: 1910 to 1912. Canberra: ANU Press. doi: http://doi.org/10.22459/GLP.02.2010
  • Lawrie, Margaret. 1970. Myths and Legends of Torres Strait / Songs from Torres Strait. St. Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press.
  • Long, Chris and Laughren, Pat. 1993. “Australia’s First Films 1894-96, Part Six: Surprising Survivals From Colonial Queensland”. In Cinema Papers 96, edited by S. Murray, 32–37. Available at < https://ro.uow.edu.au/cp/96/> [Accessed 27 May 2020].
  • Mabo, Koiki and Beckett, Jeremy. 2000. “Dancing in Torres Strait”. In The Oxford Companion to Aboriginal Art and Culture, edited by S. Kleinart and M. Neale, 165–169. Melbourne, N.S.W. and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Marriner, Katy. 2009. Who Do You Think You Are? [PDF] ATOM. [Accessed 31 March 2020].
  • Moyle, Alice. n.d. A note on early sound recordings in the AIAS archive. [manuscript] Alice Moyle Collection, MS 3501. Canberra: AIATSIS.
  • Moyle, Alice. 1983. “Archaeomusicological Possibilities in Australia, Torres Strait and New Guinea.” Bikmaus 4/3: 131–135.
  • Moyle, Alice. 1985. The Torres Strait phonograph recordings: a preliminary listing of contents. Australian Aboriginal Studies 2, 53–57.
  • Moyle, Alice. 1987. The Torres Strait Phonograph Recordings: A Preliminary Listing of Contents. IASA Phonographic Bulletin 49 (November): 11–17.
  • Myers, Charles Samuel. 1898–1899. Journal on Torres Straits Anthropological Expedition. Manuscript. Haddon Papers. ADD 8073. Cambridge: Cambridge University Library.
  • Myers, Charles Samuel. 1899. “Music: Torres Straits, etc.” The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 29/1–2: 223. Available at: <https://www.jstor.org/stable/2842607> [Accessed 28 May 2020].
  • Myers, Charles Samuel. 1901. “Hearing”. In Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume II, Physiology and Psychology, edited by Alfred Cort Haddon, 141–168. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Myers, Charles Samuel. 1907. “The Ethnological Study of Music”. In Anthropological Essays Presented to E. B. Tylor in Honour of His 75th Birthday, edited by H. Balfour, et al., 235–253. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Available at <https://wellcomelibrary.org/item/b30610928>
  • Myers, Charles Samuel. 1912a. “Music.” In Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits, Volume IV, Arts and Crafts, edited by Alfred Cort Haddon, 238–269. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Myers, Charles Samuel. 1912b. The Study of Primitive Music. Musical Antiquary 3, 121–141.
  • Myers, Charles Samuel. 1914. “The Beginnings of Music”. In Essays and Studies presented to William Ridgeway, edited by E.C. Quiggin, 560-582. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Myers, Charles Samuel. 1941. “Charles Gabriel Seligman 1973–1940.” Bibliographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 3/10: 627–646. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbm.1941.0026.
  • Myers, Charles Samuel and Haddon, Alfred Cort. 1908. “Funeral Ceremonies”. In Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume VI, Sociology, Magic and Religion of the Eastern Islanders, edited by Alfred Cort Haddon, Ch.VIII. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Niles, Don, Amos, Bergh, and Pongap, James Jesse. 1980. Notes on recordings from Tsiria village, Yule Island (Roro language), 13–24 February 1980. IPNGS 80-054. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies.
  • Oram, Nigel Denis. 1968. Culture Change, Economic Development and Migration among the Hula. Oceania 38/4: 243–275.
  • Philp, Jude. 1999. “‘Everything as It Used to Be’: Re-creating Torres Strait Islander History in 1898.” The Cambridge Journal of Anthropology 21/1: 58–78.
  • Philp, Jude. 2004. “’Embryonic science’: the 1888 Torres Strait photographic collection of A.C. Haddon”. In Woven Histories, Dancing Lives: Torres Strait Islander Identity, Culture and History, edited by R. Davis, 90–106. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press.
  • Quiggin, Alison Hingston. 1942. Haddon the Head Hunter: A Short Sketch of the life of A.C. Haddon. Cambridge: The University Press.
  • Ray, Sidney Herbert. 1895. “The Languages of British New Guinea.” The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 24: 15–39
  • Ray, Sidney Herbert. 1898-1899. Journal: Torres Straits Expedition 1898-99. [manuscript] Copies of journals and correspondence of Sidney Herbert Ray. MS 380314. London: SOAS Library.
  • Ray, Sidney Herbert. 1899. “Language: New Guinea: Torres Straits.” The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 29/1–2: 218–219. Available at <https://www.jstor.org/stable/2842607> [Accessed 28 May 2020]
  • Ray, Sidney Herbert. 1907. Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume III, The Languages of Torres Strait. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ray, Sidney Herbert. 1931. A Grammar of the Kiwai Language, Fly Delta, Papua / by Sidney H. Ray; with a Kiwai Vocabulary by E. Baxter Riley. Port Moresby Government Press.
  • Reid, R. E. 1978. John Henry Holmes in Papua: Changing Missionary Perspectives on Indigenous Cultures 1890–1914. The Journal of Pacific History 13/3: 173–187.
  • Rivers, William Halse Rivers. 1901. “Vision”. In Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume II, Physiology and Psychology, edited by Alfred Cort Haddon, 8–132. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Rivers, William Halse Rivers. 1904. “Genealogies”. In Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume V, Sociology, Magic and Religion of the Western Islanders, edited by Alfred Cort Haddon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Rivers, William Halse Rivers. 1908. “Genealogies”. In Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume VI, Sociology, Magic and Religion of the Eastern Islanders, edited by Alfred Cort Haddon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Rivers, William Halse Rivers. 1898 – 1922. Papers of William Halse Rivers Rivers [archival collection] (as filmed by the AJCP, M2619 – M2625). Cambridge: Cambridge University Library. Available online at < https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-761641256/findingaid> [Accessed 14 January 2021].
  • Seligmann, Charles Gabriel. 1902. The Medicine, Surgery, and Midwifery of the Sinaugolo. Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 32: 297–304.
  • Seligmann, Charles Gabriel. 1909. A Classification of the Natives of British New Guinea.  The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 39 (Jan–Jun): 246–275, 314–333.
  • Seligmann, Charles Gabriel. The Melanesians of British New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Shnukal, A. 2015a. Aspects of early local administration, education, health and population on Mabuyag. In Memoirs of the Queensland Museum – Culture 8(2), edited by I.J. McNiven and G. Hitchcock, 55–125. Brisbane. Available at <https://www.qm.qld.gov.au/About+Us/Publications/Memoirs+of+the+Queensland+Museum/892+MQM-C+Vol+8> [Accessed 20 October 2020]
  • Shnukal, A. 2015b. The LMS missionary B.T. Butcher on Mabuyag, 1905-1906. In Memoirs of the Queensland Museum – Culture 8(2), edited by I.J. McNiven and G. Hitchcock, 203–233. Brisbane. Available at <https://www.qm.qld.gov.au/About+Us/Publications/Memoirs+of+the+Queensland+Museum/892+MQM-C+Vol+8> [Accessed 25 March 2021]
  • Slobodin, Richard. 1978. WHR Rivers. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Stumpf, Carl. 1911. Die Anfänge der Musik. Leipzig: Verlag von Johann Ambrosius Barth. Available at <https://archive.org/details/dieanfngedermus00stumgoog/page/n3/mode/2up> [Accessed 30 June 2020].
  • Ward, Alan. 1984. “The Frazer Collection of Wax Cylinders: An Introduction.” Recorded Sound 85: 1–11.
  • Wile, Raymond R. 1990. The Development of Sound Recording at the Volta Laboratory. Association for Recorded Sound Collections Journal 21:2, 208–225. Available at <http://www.arsc-audio.org/journals/v21/v21n2p208-225.pdf>.
  • Wilkin, Anthony. 1898. Field Notebook [File 1027]. [manuscript] M2731- 2740: Torres Straits, 1888 – 1936, Cambridge University Library. Available at <http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-765702983> [Accessed 30 June 2020].
  • Wilkin, Anthony. 1904. “Land tenure and inheritance”. In Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume V, Sociology, Magic and Religion of the Western Islanders, edited by Alfred Cort Haddon, Ch. XIV. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ziegler, Susanne. 2006. Die Wachszylinder des Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs. Veröffentlichungen des Ethnographischen Museums Berlin, 73. Berlin: Ethnologisches Museum, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin.

All content on this page © British Library Board, Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies & Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, unless otherwise stated.

Leave a Reply