The British Library’s Alfred Cort Haddon 1898 Expedition (Torres Strait and British New Guinea) Cylinder Collection includes 141 wax cylinders recorded on the Torres Strait Islands and in British New Guinea as part of the 1898 Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits. This cylinder collection constitutes the earliest collection of sound recordings in the Library’s Sound Archive and the earliest from Oceania.

This page documents the history of the wax cylinders that were recorded in the Torres Strait Islands.

A note on institution names
The British Library Sound Archive and the Australian Institute for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) have previously been known under different names.

The British Institute of Recorded Sound (BIRS) was established in 1955 by Patrick Saul, who was its Director until 1978. The BIRS became part of the British Library in 1983. It was renamed as the National Sound Archive (NSA) (Day 2001) and is now referred to as the British Library Sound Archive.

AIATSIS was founded as the Australian Institute for Aboriginal Studies [AIAS]. In 1989, AIAS became AIATSIS following the passing of the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies Act.1AIATSIS. 1 May 2020. Our History. Available at: https://aiatsis.gov.au/about-us/our-history [Accessed 19 May 2020]

Research by Rebekah Hayes, British Library, in partnership with Grace Koch, AIATSIS.

The C80 Torres Strait collection comprises 101 cylinders, 94 of which have been digitised with further information about the contents of the recordings provided in the Recording entries2Recording entries are the metadata records that describe the actual content of the recordings. of the Library’s Sound and Moving Image catalogue [SAMI].3Sound & Moving Image Catalogue http://sami.bl.uk/

One Torres Strait cylinder – C62/1469 – was originally catalogued as a British New Guinea cylinder. Further research has confirmed that this cylinder was recorded in the Torres Strait; the cylinder insert note mentions the performer as Peter of Mabuiag. This cylinder will be reintegrated into the C80 Torres Strait cylinder collection, along with the 1898 British New Guinea recordings that were also recorded as part of the Cambridge Expedition.

In February 2021, an additional three cylinders in the Library’s Sound Archive were identified as belonging to this collection. These include C666/797 (previously part of the Borneo cylinder collection), C680/722 and C680/1008. In October 2021, C662/471 and C662/479 were also identified as part of this collection having been previously catalogued as cylinders recorded by Edith Durham. They are duplicates of C80/1482 but have been miscategorised due to the red-ink labels “15 Europe” and “16 Europe” on their lids.

Seven cylinders do not have Recording entries. C80/1015, 1044, 1056, 1057, 1106, and 1494 are broken and have not been digitised. C80/1066 is a blank cylinder.

The cylinders have little accompanying documentation aside from inscriptions on the card (or sometimes metal) cylinder containers and small paper inserts. Not all cylinders have corresponding paper inserts. A couple of inserts have been previously documented at the Library but the original items are now not available. Where this is the case, it has been mentioned in the metadata for the cylinder recordings.

Categorisation and Numbering

The cylinders are categorised according to a number of different systems.

As well as the British Library’s shelfmark, Alice Moyle assigned each cylinder in the Torres Strait collection a short alphanumeric code, usually prefixed by A, B or C (Moyle 1983:133). These are written on a small sticker stuck to the lids of the Torres Strait cylinders. Moyle used, “as far as possible, the numbering systems appearing on the cylinders themselves”.4Moyle, Alice. 1 November 1984. Letter to Lucy Durán. [Held at British Library World and Traditional Music section] She added numbers only when cylinders had “handwritten inscriptions” only.

The “A” and “B” cylinders are stored separately to the “C” series in “two specially made boxes, twelve compartments to each”, as found by Moyle in 1978 (Moyle, n.d.:1).

Any numbers prefixed with “D” were issued after Moyle’s work; Ward suggested they should be ignored. He also noted discrepancies between Alice Moyle’s audition sheet notes and Ward’s own copies of the inserts and cylinder boxes.5Ward, Alan. 23 January 1990. Correspondence with Grace Koch. [Held at British Library World and Traditional Music section] It is not yet clear who provided these ‘D’ codes, which often appear alongside the Moyle codes.

Dubbing / transfer history

Patrick Saul mentioned the transfer of the cylinders to tape in correspondence with Wolfgang Laade in 1977, although it is not clear that this referred to the Haddon cylinders specifically.6Laade, Wolfgang. 18 July 1977. Letter to Patrick Saul. [Held at British Library World and Traditional Music section] 7Laade, Wolfgang. 25 September 1977. Letter to Patrick Saul. [Held at British Library World and Traditional Music section]

Rights issues

In 1989, Ward and Koch had discussed the access and copying rights in regards to the reel copies held by AIAS. Koch understood that Aboriginal people, Torres Strait Islanders and researchers may listen to the tapes and may have cassette copies as long as they would not be used for commercial purposes.28Koch, Grace. 12 September 1989. Letter to Alan Ward. [Held at British Library World and Traditional Music section]In March 1990, Ward noted that the cylinder recordings were likely to be out of copyright but any transcriptions would be subject to copyright until 50 years after the author’s death.29Ward, Alan. 27 March 1990. Letter to Alice Moyle. [Held at British Library World and Traditional Music section] The dubbings of these recordings deposited at AIAS were subject to access and usage restrictions, especially for commercial purposes.In 1993, Ward authorised AIATSIS to allow access to copying of the Haddon recordings for the purpose of private study, educational and research purposes. He noted that requests for public use of the material should still passed to the National Sound Archive so they can receive acknowledgement and track the use of materials.30Ward, Alan. 4 January 1993. Letter to Grace Koch. [Held at British Library World and Traditional Music section]

Use of the recordings

The recordings in this collection have been used in a variety of contexts over the past 120 years.

The Mabo Case

In 1982, several court actions were brought against the state of Queensland by three Murray Islanders, Eddie Mabo, Dave Passi and James Rice, who sought to assert their rights to their homeland, Mer / Murray Island. Their actions resulted in changing the legal concept of Indigenous land rights for all of Australia.

Once of these cases, Mabo v Queensland [1986] included numerous references to song, dance and ceremony and the long-term continuity of these practices. Eddie Mabo, a Meriam man and first named plaintiff, specifically spoke about how he was taught the Malo-Bomai songs and dances, and the published Reports of the 1898 expedition were cited as part of the case (Koch 2013:15-16). Anthropologist Jeremy Beckett’s testimony stated that he had witnessed the performance of Malu-Bomai songs in 1961 and that they were “virtually unchanged” when compared with Myers’ transcriptions of the 1898 recordings (Koch 2013:16-17).31See Related Collections

The disputes finally went to the High Court of Australia in Mabo v Queensland (no 2) [1992] and the resulting determination recognised that a type of land rights, native title, extended to all of the mainland of Australia and its islands.

Further information about the Mabo Case is available at https://aiatsis.gov.au/explore/mabo-case.

Previous research on the cylinder recordings

In 1964, AIAS sponsored Wolfgang Laade to visit the Torres Strait Islands to determine whether the music and dances documented by Haddon and Myers were still being performed. Unfortunately, Laade found that this was not the case, especially as singers passed away (Durán 1985, Laade 1977:2).90Durán, Lucy. c. 1984. Draft of The Cylinder Project: Tape transference of Australian Aboriginal recordings on cylinder in the National Sound Archive. Laade had had access to the Cambridge Reports, and sang at least three of the songs notated by Myers to various Torres Strait Islanders. They recognised the songs and sang them back to Laade (Koch 2020, pers. comm.). These recordings can be heard on AIATSIS audio collection Songs and stories from Eastern Torres Strait [LAADE_W02], tape no. 85.91AIATSIS. 2016. Interim Finding aid – LAADE_W02 – Sound recordings collected by  Wolfgang Laade, 1963-1965. Available online: https://aiatsis.gov.au/sites/default/files/catalogue_resources/laade_w02_finding_aid_interim.pdf Laade documented the connection in his Catalogue of field tape recordings 1963-1965 [MS 2883], also held at AIATSIS.

Martin Clayton worked on a catalogue for the Library’s ethnographic wax cylinder recordings in 1995. Clayton contacted Alice Moyle, the Royal Anthropological Institute, Royal Commonwealth Society, Royal Geographical Society, Sally Beales [MAA], Wren Library [Trinity College, Cambridge], British Psychological Society Archives, and the Myers family.92Copies of these letters are held at the British Library’s World and Traditional Music section.

Clayton also noted that Alan Ward had conducted some preliminary research a decade earlier.93Clayton, Martin. 27 March 1995. Letter to Wren Library, Trinity College. Ward consulted the Haddon Papers at Cambridge University Library.94Ward, Alan. n.d. Borrowing receipts from Haddon Papers, Cambridge. [PDF] [Held at British Library World and Traditional Music section] There is evidence that he consulted further collections in Cambridge, including the papers of Ray, Myers and Seligmann.95Ward, Alan. n.d Handwritten list of Haddon papers. [Held at British Library World and Traditional Music section]

As part of work on the 1997 documentary Cracks in the Mask, Ephraim Bani translated C80/1043 (C10) and C80/1074 (C58).96Notes on cylinders C8 and C10 [PDF]. Possibly the document created by Ephraim Bani. [Held at British Library World and Traditional Music section] Director Frances Calvert suggested that the former was well-known and that the latter was about a pelican.97Calvert, Frances. 1996. Note to Janet Topp Fargion. [Held at British Library World and Traditional Music section]

AIATSIS also had two grantees who researched the artefact collection from the Cambridge Expedition.

On 21 April 1977, David Moore (Curator of Anthropology, Australian Museum) applied to AIAS for a grant to “systematise, document and publish a catalogue of the ethnographic collections made by the Cambridge Expedition to Torres Straits, 1898-99” which were in the Cambridge Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology. In the application, Moore noted that this project was “enthusiastically received by the Museum Committee.”98Moore, David. 1977. Application for Research Grant, Doc. No. 77/2124. [Held at AIATSIS].

AIAS offered him a grant-in-aid of $1000 “on the understanding that such support would provide the Institute with photographic material for its Resource Centre.”99Lambert, Jacquie. 20 October 1977. Letter to D.R. Moore. [Held at AIATSIS]. Moore sent three interim reports between 1979 and 1980, which set out how the catalogue would be structured based upon categorisation of the artefacts.  A draft of the catalogue was submitted to AIAS in 1980 and lodged in the manuscript collection.

Moore submitted a request to the AIAS Publications Committee, as AIAS had expressed earlier interest. On 10 March 1981, Graham Pike (Executive Officer, Publications at AIAS) sent a letter to D. Moore stating that AIAS could not publish the transcript and Moore was free to negotiate with Queensland University Press or another publisher. The catalogue was published by British Museum Publications in 1984 as The Torres Strait collections of A.C. Haddon: a descriptive catalogue.100Moore, David. 1984. The Torres Strait collections of A.C. Haddon: a descriptive catalogue. London: British Museum Publications. [BL shelfmark: General Reference Collection X.425/5068]

Prof George Kearney had also been a grantee at AIAS. His major interest was in psychometric testing and he had conducted work on this topic in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Kearney had previously enquired about the cylinders but they had not yet been catalogued at the time.101Kearney, George. 12 August 1976. Letter to the Principal of AIAS, Peter Ucko. [Held at AIATSIS]. 102Kearney was also interested in Haddon’s film and photographs. In 1976, he arranged for the film to be copied and received a copy of Ephraim Bani’s comments on the film. In 1978, Kearney requested to borrow a copy of the film from AIAS for a viewing in Townsville by a Torres Strait Islander. He also requested a copy of his own bibliography that he had made on the work of Haddon and Rivers and suggested that AIAS should purchase a copies of Haddon’s photographs. [AIATSIS filename 1964_64-2 KEARNEY, PROFESSOR GEORGE, held at AIATSIS]. In 1976, he suggested to Peter Ucko – Principal of AIAS – that they should “encourage [the BIRS] to get on with the job as quickly as possible.”

In 1984, Kearney enquired as to whether the cylinders had been copied.103Kearney, George. 29 May 1984. Letter to Eric Willmot, Principal of AIAS. [Held at AIATSIS]. He had been sent Alice Moyle’s preliminary report, but noted that the report did not reference the 1898 Cambridge Expedition. Grace Koch advised him that AIAS held tape copies of the cylinders and forwarded a copy of Moyle’s article from the newsletter of the Australian Branch of the International Association of Sound Archives.104Koch, Grace. 6 June. Letter to Prof George Kearney [Held at AIATSIS].

  • AIATSIS. 1973? – 1975. 1964_64-2 KEARNEY, PROFESSOR GEORGE [manuscripts] AIATSIS Central File. Canberra: AIATSIS.
  • AIATSIS. 1975 – 1984. 1964_64-3 KEARNEY, PROFESSOR GEORGE [manuscripts] AIATSIS Central File. Canberra: AIATSIS.
  • AIATSIS. 1977 – 1981. 1966_15-1 MOORE, D. – Grants – INDIVIDUAL [manuscripts] AIATSIS Central File. Canberra: AIATSIS.
  • Beckett, Jeremy. 1987. Torres Strait Islanders: Custom and colonisation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • British Library Board. 2010. Memory of The World Register: The Historic Ethnographic Recordings (1898–1951) at the British Library (United Kingdom). UNESCO. Available at <http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/CI/pdf/mow/nomination_forms/Uk%20ethnographic.pdf> [Accessed 28 April 2020].
  • David, Frank, Leah Lui-Chivizhe, and Jude Philp. 2015. “Individuals in Kulkalgal History.” Journal of Australian Studies 39/3: 290–306.
  • Day, Timothy. 2001. “The National Sound Archive: the first fifty years”. In Aural History: Essays on Recorded Sound, edited by A. Linehan, 41-64. London: The British Library.
  • Dunlop, Ian. 1979. “Ethnographic Film-Making in Australia: The First Seventy Years (1898–1968).” Aboriginal History 3/1–2: 111–119. Available at <https://www.jstor.org/stable/24045736> [Accessed 27 May 2020].
  • Durán, Lucy. 1985. “The Cylinder Project: tape transference of Australian Aboriginal recordings on cylinders in the National Sound Archive, Part I”. In Australian and New Zealand Studies: Papers Presented at a Colloquium at the British Library, 7-9 February 1984, edited by P. McLaren-Turner. London: The British Library.
  • Edwards, Elizabeth. 1998. “Performing Science: Still Photography and the Torres Strait Expedition.” In Cambridge and the Torres Strait: Centenary Essays on the 1898 Anthropological Expedition, edited by Anita Herle and Sandra Rouse, 106-135. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Eseli, Peter. 1998. Eseli’s Notebook. Translated from Kala Lagaw Ya, edited and annotated by A. Shnukal, R. Mitchell, and Y. Nagata. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies Unit Research Report Series, Volume 3. Brisbane: The University of Queensland. Available at <https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:382557> [Accessed 31 March 2020].
  • Fitzpatrick, Judith M. 2000. “Tombstone ceremonies: Identity and political integration”. In The Oxford Companion to Aboriginal Art and Culture, edited by S. Kleinart and M. Neale, 37. Melbourne, N.S.W. and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Griffiths, Alison. 2002. Wondrous Difference: Cinema, Anthropology, and Turn-of-the-Century Visual Culture. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort. c.1880-1940. Haddon Papers.  MS.HADDON. Cambridge: Cambridge University Library.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort. 1890a. Manners and customs of the Torres Straits Islanders. London: William Clowes.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort. 1890b. “The Ethnography of the Western tribe of Torres Strait.” The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 19: 297–440.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort. 1893. “The Secular and Ceremonial Dances of Torres Straits.” Internationales Archiv für Ethnographie, 6. Leiden: P.W.M. Trap. Available at: <https://archive.org/details/internationalesa06inte/page/135/mode/1up>
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort. 1898-1899. Journal of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to the Torres Strait and New Guinea. MS.HADDON. Cambridge: Cambridge University Library.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort. 1899. “The Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits and Sarawak.” Nature 1557/60: 413–416.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort. 1901. Head-Hunters. Black, White and Brown. London: Metheun & Co.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort (ed.) 1904. Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume V, Sociology, Magic and Religion of the Western Islanders. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort (ed.) 1908. Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume VI, Sociology, Magic and Religion of the Eastern Islanders. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort (ed.) 1912. Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume IV, Arts and Crafts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort (ed.) 1935. Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume I, General Ethnography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Haddon, Alfred Cort and Myers, Charles Samuel. 1908. “The Cult of Bomai and Malu”. In Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume VI, Sociology, Magic and Religion of the Eastern Islanders, edited by Alfred Cort Haddon, 281–313. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Herle, Anita. 1998. “The Life-histories of Objects: Collections of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to the Torres Strait.” In Cambridge and the Torres Strait: Centenary Essays on the 1898 Anthropological Expedition, edited by Anita Herle and Sandra Rouse, 77–105. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Herle, Anita and Rouse, Sandra (eds.) 1998. Cambridge and the Torres Strait: Centenary essays on the 1898 anthropological expedition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Herle, Anita and Philp, Jude (eds.) 2020. Recording Kastom: Alfred Haddon’s Journals from the Torres Strait and New Guinea, 1888 and 1898. Sydney: Sydney University Press.
  • Hornbostel, Erich Moritz von. 1913. “Melodie und Skala”. In Jahrbuch der Musikbibliothek Peters, 19. Jahrgang, 11–23. Leipzig: C.F. Peters. Available at <https://archive.org/details/melodieundskala00horn/> [Accessed 14 January 2021].
  • Koch, Grace. 2013. We have the song, so we have the land: song and ceremony as proof of ownership in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander land claims. AIATSIS research discussion paper no. 33. Canberra: AIATSIS Research Publications. Available at <https://aiatsis.gov.au/sites/default/files/research_pub/we-have-the-song-so-we-have-the-land_0_2.pdf> [Accessed 9 March 2021].
  • Koch, Grace. 2019. “’We Want Our Voices Back’: Ethical Dilemmas in the Repatriation of Recordings”. In The Oxford Handbook of Musical Repatriation, edited by F. Gunderson, R.C. Lancefield & B. Woods, ch.11. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190659806.013.11
  • Kuklick, Henrika. 1998. “Fieldworkers and physiologists.” In Cambridge and the Torres Strait: Centenary Essays on the 1898 Anthropological Expedition, edited by Anita Herle and Sandra Rouse, 158–180. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Laade, Wolfgang. 1973. “Notes on the clans, economy, trade and traditional law of the Murray Islanders, Torres Straits.” Journal de la Société des océanistes 9/29, 151–167. doi: https://doi.org/10.3406/jso.1973.2423. Available from <https://www.persee.fr/doc/jso_0300-953x_1973_num_29_39_2423> [Accessed 9 December 2020].
  • Laade, Wolfgang. 1977. Traditional Songs of the Western Torres Straits, South Pacific. Folkways Records Album No. FE 4025 [sleeve notes] New York: Folkways Records.
  • Langmore, Diane. c1989. Missionary Lives: Papua, 1874-1914. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
  • Lawrence, Helen Reeves. 2004. “‘The great traffic in tunes’: agents of religious and musical changes in eastern Torres Strait.” In Woven Histories, Dancing Lives: Torres Strait Islander Identity, Culture and History, edited by R. Davis, 46–72. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press.
  • Lawrie, Margaret. 1970. Myths and Legends of Torres Strait / Songs from Torres Strait. St. Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press.
  • Long, Chris and Laughren, Pat. 1993. “Australia’s First Films 1894-96, Part Six: Surprising Survivals From Colonial Queensland”. In Cinema Papers 96, edited by S. Murray, 32–37. Available at < https://ro.uow.edu.au/cp/96/> [Accessed 27 May 2020].
  • Mabo, Koiki and Beckett, Jeremy. 2000. “Dancing in Torres Strait”. In The Oxford Companion to Aboriginal Art and Culture, edited by S. Kleinart and M. Neale, 165–169. Melbourne, N.S.W. and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Marriner, Katy. 2009. Who Do You Think You Are? [PDF] ATOM. [Accessed 31 March 2020].
  • Moyle, Alice. n.d. A note on early sound recordings in the AIAS archive. [manuscript] Alice Moyle Collection, MS 3501. Canberra: AIATSIS.
  • Moyle, Alice. 1983. “Archaeomusicological Possibilities in Australia, Torres Strait and New Guinea.” Bikmaus 4/3: 131–135.
  • Moyle, Alice. 1985. The Torres Strait phonograph recordings: a preliminary listing of contents. Australian Aboriginal Studies 2, 53–57.
  • Moyle, Alice. 1987. The Torres Strait Phonograph Recordings: A Preliminary Listing of Contents. IASA Phonographic Bulletin 49 (November): 11–17.
  • Myers, Charles Samuel. 1898–1899. Journal on Torres Straits Anthropological Expedition. Manuscript. Haddon Papers. ADD 8073. Cambridge: Cambridge University Library.
  • Myers, Charles Samuel. 1899. “Music: Torres Straits, etc.” The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 29/1–2: 223. Available at: <https://www.jstor.org/stable/2842607> [Accessed 28 May 2020].
  • Myers, Charles Samuel. 1901. “Hearing”. In Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume II, Physiology and Psychology, edited by Alfred Cort Haddon, 141–168. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Myers, Charles Samuel. 1907. “The Ethnological Study of Music”. In Anthropological Essays Presented to E. B. Tylor in Honour of His 75th Birthday, edited by H. Balfour, et al., 235–253. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Available at <https://wellcomelibrary.org/item/b30610928>
  • Myers, Charles Samuel. 1912a. “Music.” In Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits, Volume IV, Arts and Crafts, edited by Alfred Cort Haddon, 238–269. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Myers, Charles Samuel. 1912b. The Study of Primitive Music. Musical Antiquary 3, 121–141.
  • Myers, Charles Samuel. 1914. “The Beginnings of Music”. In Essays and Studies presented to William Ridgeway, edited by E.C. Quiggin, 560-582. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Myers, Charles Samuel. 1941. “Charles Gabriel Seligman 1973–1940.” Bibliographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 3/10: 627–646. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbm.1941.0026.
  • Myers, Charles Samuel and Haddon, Alfred Cort. 1908. “Funeral Ceremonies”. In Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume VI, Sociology, Magic and Religion of the Eastern Islanders, edited by Alfred Cort Haddon, Ch.VIII. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Philp, Jude. 1999. “‘Everything as It Used to Be’: Re-creating Torres Strait Islander History in 1898.” The Cambridge Journal of Anthropology 21/1: 58–78.
  • Philp, Jude. 2004. “’Embryonic science’: the 1888 Torres Strait photographic collection of A.C. Haddon”. In Woven Histories, Dancing Lives: Torres Strait Islander Identity, Culture and History, edited by R. Davis, 90–106. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press.
  • Quiggin, Alison Hingston. 1942. Haddon the Head Hunter: A Short Sketch of the life of A.C. Haddon. Cambridge: The University Press.
  • Ray, Sidney Herbert. 1898-1899. Journal: Torres Straits Expedition 1898-99. [manuscript] Copies of journals and correspondence of Sidney Herbert Ray. MS 380314. London: SOAS Library.
  • Ray, Sidney Herbert. 1899. “Language: New Guinea: Torres Straits.” The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 29/1–2: 218–219. Available at <https://www.jstor.org/stable/2842607> [Accessed 28 May 2020]
  • Ray, Sidney Herbert. 1907. Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume III, The Languages of Torres Strait. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Rivers, William Halse Rivers. 1901. “Vision”. In Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume II, Physiology and Psychology, edited by Alfred Cort Haddon, 8–132. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Rivers, William Halse Rivers. 1904. “Genealogies”. In Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume V, Sociology, Magic and Religion of the Western Islanders, edited by Alfred Cort Haddon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Rivers, William Halse Rivers. 1908. “Genealogies”. In Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume VI, Sociology, Magic and Religion of the Eastern Islanders, edited by Alfred Cort Haddon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Rivers, William Halse Rivers. 1898 – 1922. Papers of William Halse Rivers Rivers [archival collection] (as filmed by the AJCP, M2619 – M2625). Cambridge: Cambridge University Library. Available online at < https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-761641256/findingaid> [Accessed 14 January 2021].
  • Shnukal, A. 2015a. Aspects of early local administration, education, health and population on Mabuyag. In Memoirs of the Queensland Museum – Culture 8(2), edited by I.J. McNiven and G. Hitchcock, 55–125. Brisbane. Available at <https://www.qm.qld.gov.au/About+Us/Publications/Memoirs+of+the+Queensland+Museum/892+MQM-C+Vol+8> [Accessed 20 October 2020]
  • Shnukal, A. 2015b. The LMS missionary B.T. Butcher on Mabuyag, 1905-1906. In Memoirs of the Queensland Museum – Culture 8(2), edited by I.J. McNiven and G. Hitchcock, 203–233. Brisbane. Available at <https://www.qm.qld.gov.au/About+Us/Publications/Memoirs+of+the+Queensland+Museum/892+MQM-C+Vol+8> [Accessed 25 March 2021]
  • Stumpf, Carl. 1911. Die Anfänge der Musik. Leipzig: Verlag von Johann Ambrosius Barth. Available at <https://archive.org/details/dieanfngedermus00stumgoog/page/n3/mode/2up> [Accessed 30 June 2020].
  • Ward, Alan. 1984. “The Frazer Collection of Wax Cylinders: An Introduction.” Recorded Sound 85: 1–11.
  • Wilkin, Anthony. 1898. Field Notebook [File 1027]. [manuscript] M2731- 2740: Torres Straits, 1888 – 1936, Cambridge University Library. Available at <http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-765702983> [Accessed 30 June 2020].
  • Wilkin, Anthony. 1904. “Land tenure and inheritance”. In Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Strait: Volume V, Sociology, Magic and Religion of the Western Islanders, edited by Alfred Cort Haddon, Ch. XIV. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ziegler, Susanne. 2006. Die Wachszylinder des Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs. Veröffentlichungen des Ethnographischen Museums Berlin, 73. Berlin: Ethnologisches Museum, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin.

All content on this page © British Library Board & Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, unless otherwise stated.

Leave a Reply